Inthe United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which is a pledge among nations to promote fundamental rights as the foundation of freedom, justice, and peace in the world. The political elite in Europe often condemn the US as human rights violators since we still use the death penalty on murderers, which they insist is a violation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. And they also point to Article 5, which states that no one shall be subjected to cruel or degrading punishment. From this, abolitinists self-righteously declare that the death penalty violates both of these rights.
The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime. The Latins use the word capitalis from caput, head to describe that which related to life, that by which life is endangered. They used the neuter form of this adjective, i.
The idea of capital punishment is of great antiquity and formed a part of the primal concepts of the human race. When Cain committed fratricide Genesis 4and was rebuked therefor by Godhe uttered the lament that his life would be in danger by reason of the hostility of others.
A mark was set upon him by the Lord which was a guarantee of his personal safety. The first Divine pronouncement which seems to sanction the death penalty is found in Genesis 9: Down to their latest days the Kingdoms of Israel and Juda preserved capital punishment as a feature of their criminal code.
No more cruel form of punishment for offences deemed capital existed in ancient times than that which prevailed among the Jewsi. This form of capital punishment is repeatedly mentioned in the Old and New Testaments. It would appear from the Book of Esther that hanging was the punishment which prevailed among the Assyrians.
The ancient Greeks punished homicide phonoscommitted by design, and many other offences with death.
|National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty||History Anarchist Auguste Vaillant guillotined in France in Execution of criminals has been used by nearly all societies since the beginning of civilizations on Earth.|
|Death Penalty||The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime. The Latins use the word capitalis from caput, head to describe that which related to life, that by which life is endangered.|
|The international framework||The lethal injection room in Florida State Prison.|
|OHCHR | Death Penalty||Inthe United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which is a pledge among nations to promote fundamental rights as the foundation of freedom, justice, and peace in the world. The political elite in Europe often condemn the US as human rights violators since we still use the death penalty on murderers, which they insist is a violation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.|
|National Coalition to||History Anarchist Auguste Vaillant guillotined in France in Execution of criminals has been used by nearly all societies since the beginning of civilizations on Earth. The use of formal execution extends to the beginning of recorded history.|
The court which prescribed this penalty was the Court of the Areopagus. The court was not invested with discretionary power in awarding punishment, since Demosthenes says that the law determined this according to the nature of the crime.
Wilful murder was punished with death, and other degrees of homicide and malicious wounding were punished with banishment and confiscation of goods.
Those who were convicted upon a charge of unintentional homicidenot perfectly excusable, were condemned to leave the country for a year. Treason prodosia was punished with death.
The goods of traitors who suffered death were confiscated, and their houses razed to the ground. It was not permitted to bury their bodies in the country, but they were cast out into some desolate place. Hence, the bones of Themistocles, who had been condemned for treason, were brought over and buried secretly by his friends, as related by Thucydides.
The posterity of a traitor received the treatment of outlaws.
The Areopagus was the tribunal for the trial of cases wherein the charge against an individual was wilful murder and wounding, or a charge of arson or poisoning. The Attic legend tells us that the first notable trial before the Areopagus was that of Orestes upon a charge of having murdered his mother.
Aeschylus represents this trial as the origin of the court itself. Some authorities claim that the Ephetai acted as a Court for the trial of murder in conjunction with that of Areopagus. The Ephetai certainly had jurisdiction over cases involving the lesser degrees of homicide.
The punishment of death at Athens was generally by poison in the case of freemen. After sentence, the condemned murderer was directed to take a cup of hemlock or other poison and drink it.
In the case of the imposition of any penalty upon a criminal in the courts of Athensthe prosecutor proposed the penalty in the first instance and then the person condemned had the privilege of suggesting a different punishment.
Thus it was that Socrateswhen his death was proposed, after trial and conviction, suggested that instead of being punished by death he ought to be entertained at public expense for the rest of his life in the Prytaneum, the palatial quarters used by the Athenians for extending and providing municipal hospitality.
Criminals of low social grade, such as slaves, were beaten to death with cudgels. The Roman law was notably severe in regard to public offences. A law of the Twelve Tables contained some provision as to homicide Plin. It is generally assumed that the law of Numa Pompilius, quoted by Festus s.
Parrici Questores"Si quis hominem liberum dolo sciens morti duit paricida esto" [If any one with guile, and knowingly, inflicts death upon a freeman, let him be considered as a parricide], was incorporated into the Twelve Tables, and is the law of homicide to which Pliny refers; but this cannot be proved.
It is generally supposed that the laws of the Twelve Tables contained provisions against incantations malum carmen and poisoning, both of which offences were also included under parricidum parricide.THE DEATH PENALTY IN THE UNITED STATES This webpage is dedicated to the innocent victims of murder, may they always be remembered.
Each execution deters an average of 18 murders according to a nationwide study. Background.
Capital punishment is the lawful infliction of death as a punishment and since ancient times it has been used for a wide variety of offences. "Executing the mentally retarded is senseless cruelty.
Even strong death penalty supporters recognize that capital punishment is wrong for people with the mind of a child.". "Executing the mentally retarded is senseless cruelty.
Even strong death penalty supporters recognize that capital punishment is wrong for . When news breaks that a convicted murderer, released from prison, has killed again, or that an innocent person has escaped the death chamber in light of new DNA evidence, arguments about capital punishment inevitably heat up.
The Death Penalty Information Center has released a major new report, Behind the Curtain: Secrecy and the Death Penalty in the United States, examining the scope and consequences of secrecy in the application of the death penalty in the United ashio-midori.com report, released on November 20, , tells the story of the expansion of execution secrecy and the questionable practices that states have.