During its brief history, agriculture has radically transformed human societies and fueled a global population that has grown from 4 million to 7 billion since 10, BCE, and is still growing.
Neo-feudal land-tenure developments of late Song and Yuan times were arrested with the establishment of the Ming dynasty. Great landed estates were confiscated by the government, fragmented, and rented out, and private slavery was forbidden.
In the 15th century, consequently, independent peasant landholders dominated… Over time, some plants and animals have become domesticated, or dependent on these and other human interventions for their long-term propagation or survival.
Domestication is a biological process in which, under human selection, organisms develop characteristics that increase their utility, as when plants provide larger seeds, fruitor tubers than their wild progenitors.
Known as cultigens, domesticated plants come from a wide range of families groups of closely related genera that share a common ancestor; see genus. The grass Poaceaebean Fabaceaeand nightshade or potato Solanaceae families have produced a disproportionately large number of cultigens because they have characteristics that are particularly amenable to domestication.
Domesticated animals tend to have developed from species that are social in the wild and that, like plants, could be bred to increase the traits that are advantageous for people.
Most domesticated animals are more docile than their wild counterparts, and they often produce more meatwoolor milk as well. They have been used for traction, transport, pest control, assistance, and companionship and as a form of wealth.
Species with abundant domesticated varieties, or breeds, include the dog Canis lupus familiariscat Felis catuscattle Bos speciessheep Ovis speciesgoat Capra speciesswine Sus specieshorse Equus caballuschicken Gallus gallusand duck and goose family Anatidae.
Because it is a cultural phenomenon, agriculture has varied considerably across time and space.
Domesticated plants and animals have been and continue to be raised at scales ranging from the household to massive commercial operations.
This article recognizes the wide range of activities that encompass food production and emphasizes the cultural factors leading to the creation of domesticated organisms.
It discusses some of the research techniques used to discern the origins of agriculture as well as the general trajectory of agricultural development in the ancient societies of Southwest Asia, the Americas, East Asia, Southeast Asiathe Indian subcontinent, and Europe.
For specific techniques of habitat alteration and plant propagationsee horticulture. For techniques of animal propagation, see livestock farming ; poultry farming.
Page 1 of Concern about overpopulation is an ancient topic. Tertullian was a resident of the city of Carthage in the second century CE, when the population of the world was about million (only 3–4% of what it is today).He notably said: "What most frequently meets our view (and occasions complaint) is .
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PALAEOLITHIC AND MESOLITHIC AGE PALAEOLITHIC AGE (Old Stone Age) It was basically a hunting and food gathering culture The term Palaeolithic was coined by archaeologist John Lubbock in It literally means “Old Stone Age.” ('Palaeo' means 'old' and 'lithic' means 'stone').
Robert Bruce Foot was the first to discover a Palaeolithic stone in India. Zvenyhora spanned millennia in Ukraine’s ashio-midori.coml looked back ten years to the civil ashio-midori.com draws from the present historical moment () and central topic of the day, collectivization. Dealing not so much with collectivization as appropriating the topic, the film orchestrates philosophic meditation.
This innovative text provides a compelling narrative world history through the lens of food and farmers. Tracing the history of agriculture from earliest times to the present, Christopher Isett and Stephen Miller argue that people, rather than markets, have been the primary agents of agricultural change.
Exploring the actions taken by individuals and groups over time and analyzing their.