The name "America" is often used to refer to the United States, but until the political formation of the United States after the Revolutionary War, this designation referred to South America only.
Sydney Jones Overview Once known as Eskimos, the Inuit inhabit the Arctic region, one of the most forbidding territories on earth. Occupying lands that stretch 12, miles from parts of Siberia, along the Alaskan coast, across Canada, and on to Greenland, the Inuit are one of the most widely dispersed people in the world, but number only about 60, in population.
Between 25, and 35, reside in Alaska, with other smaller groups in Canada, Greenland, and Siberia. The name Eskimo was given to these people by neighboring Abnaki Indians and means "eaters of raw flesh. It is estimated that the Inuit arrived some 4, years ago on the North American continent, thus coming much later than other indigenous peoples.
The major language family for Arctic peoples is Eskaleut. While Aleut is considered a separate language, Eskimo branches into Inuit and Yup'ik. Yup'ik includes several languages, while Inuit is a separate tongue with several local dialects, including Inupiaq AlaskaInuktitut Eastern Canadaand Kalaallisut Greenland.
Throughout their long history and vast migrations, the Inuit have not been greatly influenced by other Indian cultures. Their use and array of tools, their spoken language, and their physical type have changed little over large periods of time and space.
Alaskan Inuit inhabit the west, southwest, and the far north and northwest of Alaska, comprising the Alutiiq, Yup'ik or Yupiatand Inupiat tribes. As the first two tribes are dealt with separately, this essay will focus on that group regionally known as Inupiat, and formerly known as Bering Strait or Kotzebue Sound Eskimos, and even sometimes West Alaskan and North Alaskan Eskimos.
Residing in some three dozen villages and towns— including Kotzebue, Point Hope, Wainwright, Barrow, and Prudhoe Bay—between the Bering Strait and the McKenzie Delta to the east, and occupying some 40, square miles above the Arctic Circle, this group has been divided differently by various anthropologists.
Some classify the Inuit into two main groups, the inland people or Nuunamiut, and the coastal people, the Tagiugmiut. This early "homeland" of the Inupiat, around Kotzebue Sound, was extended as the tribes eventually moved farther north.
Over 40 percent of Alaskan Inuit now reside in urban areas, with Anchorage having the highest population, and Nome on the south of the Seward Peninsula also having a large group of Inupiat as well as Yup'ik. Within Inupiat territory, the main population centers are Barrow and Kotzebue.
Anthropologists have discerned several different cultural epochs that began around the Bering Sea. The Denbigh, also known as the Small Tool culture, began some years ago, and over the course of the next millennia it spread westward though Arctic Alaska and Canada.
Oriented to the sea and to living with snow, the Denbigh most likely originated the snow house. Characterized by the use of flint blades, skin-covered boats, and bows and arrows, the Denbigh was transformed further east into the Dorset Tradition by about B.
Signs of both the Denbigh and Dorset cultures have been unearthed at the well-known Ipiutak site, located near the Inuit settlement of Point Hope, approximately miles north of the Arctic Circle. Point Hope, still a small Inuit village at the mouth of the Kukpuk River, appears to have been continuously inhabited for 2, years, making it the oldest known Inuit settlement.
The population of the historical Ipiutak was probably larger than that of the modern village of Point Hope, with a population of about 2, people.
Houses at Ipiutak were small, about 12 by 15 feet square, with sod-covered walls and roof. Benches against the walls were used for sleeping, while the fire was kept in a small central depression of the main room. Artifacts from the site indicate that the Ipiutak hunted sea and land mammals, as do modern Inuit.
Seals, walruses, and caribou provided the basis of their diet. Though the tools of whale hunting, including harpoons, floats, and sleds, were missing from this site, bone and ivory carvings of a rare delicacy—reminiscent of some ancient Siberian art—were found. Other Inuit settled in part-time villages during the same epoch.
The continuous development of these peoples is demonstrated by the similarities in both ancient and modern Inuit cultures. Called by some the Old Bering Sea Cultures, these early inhabitants traveled by kayak and umiak skin boats in the warmer months, and by sled in the winter.
Living near the coast, they hunted sea and land mammals, lived in tiny semi-subterranean dwellings, and developed a degree of artistic skill. The Dorset culture was later superseded by the Norton culture, which was in turn followed by the Thule.
The Thule already had characteristics of culture common to Inuit culture: They spread westward through Canada and ultimately on to Greenland. However, it appears that some of the Thule backtracked, returning to set up permanent villages in both Alaska and Siberia.
Anthropologically classified as central-based wanderers, the Inuit spent part of the year on the move, searching for food, and then part of the year at a central, more permanent camp. Anywhere from a dozen to fifty people traveled in a hunting group.
The year was divided into three hunting seasons, revolving around one animal. The hunting seasons were seal, caribou, and whale.Inuit traditions include the continued use of Inuit languages, storytelling as a way to pass events down to generations, dancing and the belief in mythology.
Inuits often maintain a hunting tradition as a way to obtain food and keep a close connection to family and friends. Since World War II, Inuit. It is estimated that about , aboriginal, Inuit and Métis children were removed from their communities and forced to attend residential schools.
Inuit Culture, Traditions, and History. Traditional Inuit way of life was influenced by the harsh climate and stark landscapes of the Arctic tundra – from beliefs inspired by stories of the aurora to practicalities like homes made of snow.
Nuuk, Green. Greenland Tourism; Although Greenland remains a part of the Kingdom of Denmark, the island’s home-rule government is responsible for most domestic ashio-midori.com Greenlandic people are primarily Inuit ().The capital of Greenland is Nuuk (Godthåb).
The Inuit’s view of life. Inuit Culture; By Visit Greenland.
Behind Greenland's largest travel site is the Visit Greenland that is % owned by the Government of Greenland, who is responsible for marketing the country's adventures and opportunities for guests wishing to visit the world's largest island All about art, music, history.
Inuit History and Heritage. a distinct history and cultural tradition. Recently, however, there has been a movement to unite indigenous peoples throughout the characteristics of Inuit culture from Alaska to Greenland. On the origin and migration route map.