Spherical fullerenes are also called buckyballs, and they resemble the balls used in football association football.
Background A tumor marker is a substance such as a protein, antigen or hormone in the body that may indicate the presence of cancer. Generally, these markers are specific to certain types of cancer and can be detected in blood, urine and tissue samples. The body may produce the marker in response to cancer or the tumor itself may produce the marker.
The detection of tumor markers may be used to determine a diagnosis or as an indicator of disease cancer progression. It can also be used to document clinical response to treatment.
Tumor markers are normally produced in low quantities by cells in the body. Detection of a higher-than-normal serum level by radioimmunoassay or immunohistochemical techniques usually indicates the presence of a certain type of cancer.
Currently, the main use of tumor Investigation in microtubule dynamic instability is to assess a cancer's response to treatment and to check for recurrence. In some types of cancer, tumor marker levels may reflect the extent or stage of the disease and can be useful in predicting how well the disease will respond to treatment.
|Free Access to Scientific Journals||Sources Allium sativum of the Allioideae subfamily is a food product known as Garlic in the same genus as onion plants allium alongside some other common food products such as onion, garlic, chive, leek, and rakkyo. The genera contains above different plants, and while in the past it was placed in the Liliaceae family it now resides as the largest genera in the Amaryllidaceae family.|
|Microtubule dynamic instability: A new model with coupled GTP hydrolysis and multistep catastrophe||Structure[ edit ] The kinetochore contains two regions:|
|Kinetochore - Wikipedia||This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Nanoparticle albumin bound paclitaxel nab-paclitaxel represents the first nanotechnology-based drug in cancer treatment.|
|Background||Obtained enormous global visibility and tremendous response from the authors and readers from all over the world inspired the publisher to maintain reputed Open Access Journals in various scientific disciplines. The journals have over 15 million readers and the reputation and success earned can be attributed to the strong Editorial Board which contains over 50, eminent personalities that ensure a rapid, qualitative and quick review process.|
|Species Glossary||Discodermolide Vinblastine and vincristine were isolated from the Madagascar periwinkle Catharanthus roseus.|
A decrease or return to normal in the level of a tumor marker may indicate that the cancer has responded favorably to therapy. If the tumor marker level rises, it may indicate that the cancer is spreading.
Finally, measurements of tumor marker levels may be used after treatment has ended as a part of follow-up care to check for recurrence. However, in many cases the literature states that measurements of tumor marker levels alone are insufficient to diagnose cancer for the following reasons: High levels of B2M are an indicator of certain kinds of cancer, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma or kidney disease; Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin beta HCG — A type of tumor marker that may be found in higher than normal amounts in individuals with some types of cancer; Calcitonin — Hormone secreted by the thyroid that lowers blood calcium; Calretinin — A calcium-binding protein that is used as a marker in the evaluation of lung cancer and other diseases.
Chromogranin A — A protein found inside neuroendocrine cells, which releases chromogranin A and other hormones into the blood. Chromogranin A may be found in higher than normal amounts in individuals with certain neuroendocrine tumors, small cell lung cancer, prostate cancer and other conditions Guanylyl cyclase c GCC — An enzyme that may be expressed only in the cells that line the intestine from the duodenum to the rectum.
Inhibin — One of two hormones designated inhibin-A and inhibin-B secreted by the gonads by Sertoli cells in the male and the granulosa cells in the female and inhibits the production of follicle-stimulating hormone FSH by the pituitary gland; Lactate Dehydrogenase LDH — Marker used to monitor treatment of testicular cancer; Mucin-1 MUC-1 — Carbohydrate antigen elevated in individuals with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung and prostate as well as other disorders; Napsin A — Protein used as a marker in the evaluation of lung cancer; Prealbumin — Marker of nutritional status and a sensitive indicator of protein synthesis.
Levels of PSA in the blood often increase in men with prostate cancer. Thyroglobulin — Protein found in the thyroid gland. Some thyroglobulin can be found in the blood and this amount may be measured after thyroid surgery to determine whether thyroid cancer has recurred; Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 TTF-1 — A protein that is used as a tumor marker in the evaluation of lung cancer; Transferrin — A protein in blood plasma that carries iron derived from food intake to the liver, spleen and bone marrow.
Tumors may be evaluated with histology, which involves examination of the structure, especially the microscopic structure, of organic tissues. Methods of detecting tumor markers include, but are not limited to: Immunohistochemical IHC Analysis — Laboratory process of detecting an organism in tissues with antibodies.
Gene mutation testing can purportedly be used to find somatic mutations in cancerous cells that are not inherited. Some examples of genes that may have somatic mutations include: Individualized molecular tumor profiling is a laboratory method of testing a panel of tumor markers, which may include genetic as well as biochemical markers, to establish a personalized molecular profile of a tumor to recommend treatment options.
Next-generation sequence NGS tests use select genes to purportedly identify molecular growth drivers for improved risk stratification and targeted therapies.Autophagy is the highly conserved process by which eukaryotic cells scavenge their own cytoplasmic contents through sequestration into a phagophore and subsequent fusion with a .
P. Phase II randomized trial of capecitabine + radiation therapy with/ without bevacizumab as preoperative treatment for patients with resectable locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma: Final results of 3 and 5-year disease free survival, distant relapse free survival and overall survival.
FGF-basic is one of 23 known members of the FGF family. Proteins of this family play a central role during prenatal development, postnatal growth and regeneration of a variety of tissues, by promoting cellular proliferation and differentiation.
Nanoparticle albumin bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) represents the first nanotechnology-based drug in cancer treatment. We discuss the development of this innovative compound and report the recent changing-practice results in breast and pancreatic cancer.
A ground-breaking finding is the demonstration that nab-paclitaxel can not only enhance the activity and reduce the toxicity of. *This value is calculated using ResearchGate data and is based on average citation counts from work published in this journal.
The data used in the calculation may not be exhaustive. Periods of rapid microtubule polymerization alternate with periods of shrinkage in a process known as dynamic instability. In plants, dynamic instability plays a key role in determining the organization of microtubules into arrays, and .