The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that "peace" seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial.
But this is very unsatisfactory, because even the major Fascist states differ from one another a good deal in structure and ideology. It is not easy, for instance, to fit Germany and Japan into the same framework, and it is even harder with some of the small states which are describable as Fascist.
It is usually assumed, for instance, that Fascism is inherently warlike, that it thrives in an atmosphere of war hysteria and can only solve its economic problems by means of war preparation or foreign conquests.
But clearly this is not true of, say, Portugal or the various South American dictatorships.
Or again, antisemitism is supposed to be one of the distinguishing marks of Fascism; but some Fascist movements are not antisemitic. Learned controversies, reverberating for years on end in American magazines, have not even been able to determine whether or not Fascism is a form of capitalism.
It is in internal politics that this word has lost the last vestige of meaning. For if you examine the press you will find that there is almost no set of people — certainly no political party or organized body of any kind — which has not been denounced as Fascist during the past ten years. I am speaking of what I have seen in print.
All Conservatives, appeasers or anti-appeasers, are held to be subjectively pro-Fascist. British rule in India and the Colonies is held to be indistinguishable from Nazism. Defenders of old-style capitalism example, Sir Ernest Benn maintain that Socialism and Fascism are the same thing. Some Catholic journalists maintain that Socialists have been the principal collaborators in the Nazi-occupied countries.
The same accusation is made from a different angle by the Communist party during its ultra-Left phases. This is echoed by other Left extremists such as Anarchists. Some Indian Nationalists consider the British trade unions to be Fascist organizations.
Leaders in The Times pre-war have referred to the U. Again from a different angle this is echoed by Anarchists and Trotskyists. Communists charge the Trotskyists proper, i. This was widely believed on the Left during the Popular Front period.
In their ultra-Right phases the Communists tend to apply the same accusation to all factions to the Left of themselves, e. Common Wealth or the I. Outside its own ranks, the Catholic Church is almost universally regarded as pro-Fascist, both objectively and subjectively; War resisters: Pacifists and others who are anti-war are frequently accused not only of making things easier for the Axis, but of becoming tinged with pro-Fascist feeling.
Supporters of the war: The Home Guard was denounced as a Fascist organization as soon as it appeared.
In addition, the whole of the Left tends to equate militarism with Fascism. Battle-schools, spit and polish, saluting of officers are all considered conducive to Fascism. Before the war, joining the Territorials was regarded as a sign of Fascist tendencies. Conscription and a professional army are both denounced as Fascist phenomena.
Nationalism is universally regarded as inherently Fascist, but this is held only to apply to such national movements as the speaker happens to disapprove of.
In conversation, of course, it is used even more wildly than in print.
Yet underneath all this mess there does lie a kind of buried meaning. That is about as near to a definition as this much-abused word has come. But Fascism is also a political and economic system.2 page essay question pdf model papers words limit essay teachers day in hindi words short paragraph about eating habits food leads to obesity essay writing service discount medical how to write a childhood essay outline for college level persuasive essay body paragraph examples write my essay now for me essay zoo in hindi for class 4 words essay on leadership in hindi "The Civil War in Popular Culture is an eclectic approach covering a variety of subjects, including Civil War myth and memory, films, novels, battlefield preservation and monuments, souvenirs, race and gender politics, the internet, war gaming, military medicine, and battle field reenactment.
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