His research focuses on the development of mathematical thinking. Siegler has published more than articles and chapters, written 10 books, and edited 4 others. Siegler's research focuses on how theoretical understanding of mathematical development can be applied to improving children's math learning. His studies examine how children's representations of numbers influence their ability to learn whole number arithmetic, fractions, and other topics in mathematics.
Treatment guidelines in psychiatry have been influenced by three factors: The latter of these offer important information, but may be inherently flawed because most psychopharmacology outcome studies are sponsored by drug companies who have a vested interest in producing good outcomes.
The major drawback here is that many null studies never make it into the journals. Thus, it is difficult to realistically evaluate the effectiveness of certain treatments with only primarily positive outcome data available. The large-scaled Psy 250 mentioned above are funded by the NIMH, Texas Department of Mental Health, and a university, respectively, and thus may more accurately reflect realistic outcome data, non-influenced by the profit motives of drug companies.
Also, the studies are not ones of consensus opinions, but rather based on empirical outcomes Psy 250 very large groups of subjects. What is summarized below are the first of what promises to be a growing body of evidence-based data that can suggest specific strategies for the treatment of major depression.
A large body of neuroscience research has strongly implicated that dysregulation of certain central neurotransmitters may be associated with particular psychiatric symptoms.
Most individuals that experience a decreased availability of neurotransmitters such as serotonin abbreviated 5-HT dopamine DA or norepinephrine NE do not develop clinical Psy 250 Delgado, Charney, Price, et al.
However, some do, which is likely due to underlying genetic or other vulnerability factors. Among depressed subjects inadequate functioning of 5-HT, DA, or NE can contribute to certain core depressive symptoms such as a depressed mood, pessimistic and negative thinking, guilt, low self-esteem, and fatigue.
What has emerged during the past two decades of research are general but consistent findings suggesting that beyond common, core symptoms of depression particular neurotransmitter dysfunctions may be accompanied by or cause specific symptoms: Metzner,which have led to the following guidelines in which particular symptomatic features point toward first-line antidepressant medication choices: It is likely that SNRIs serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors such as Effexor, Pristiq, Fetzima, and Cymbalta may also be useful in this group of depressed patients, however, this has not been adequately studied as of yet.
One action seen with acute administration of SNRIs i. In individuals with this version of MDD, such acute onset side effects often result in abrupt patient-initiated discontinuation the side effects often scare patients and may make them very reluctant to go through another antidepressant trial.
Thus although after weeks of treatment SSRIs often begin to significantly reduce both depression and anxiety symptoms, the initial few weeks of treatment can be very challenging and many patients drop out of treatment.
A popular and effective way to address this problem is to initially co-administer a benzodiazepine i. Ativanusing this drug to rapidly reduce anxiety, agitation, and drug-induced activation. In addition, since benzodiazepines begin to reduce anxiety within an hour of taking the medication, the experience for many patients is that they feel noticeably better, quickly.
This is an added benefit because it often leads to hopefulness about treatment and enhances compliance. Generally, after one month of treatment the benzodiazepine can be phased out. This is often a very successful strategy, however there is one important warning.
Since benzodiazepines can be drugs of abuse, the use of these agents is risky and not indicated if there is a history of alcohol or substance abuse.
With an addiction history, some psychiatrists are now using the non-habit-forming antihistamine hydroxyzine Atarax; Vistaril to target the activation and Benadryl or low doses of trazodone mg or low dose Remeron 7. Such depressions are sometimes referred to as anergic depressions.
Other symptoms often associated with atypical MDD are: Note that Wellbutrin may increase anxiety; thus, if anxiety symptoms are present, this drug may be contraindicated.
It is important to exercise caution when treating atypical MDD because many such individuals may be expressing the depressive phase of bipolar illness, and if treated with antidepressants alone there is a risk of switching i.
More will be said about switching and cycle acceleration in the section below on bipolar illness. Metzner has demonstrated that targeted treatment for depression i.
TTD where the choice of a first-line antidepressant is based on the presenting clinical picture as outline above yields superior outcomes compared to standard STD treatment as usual.PSY. Entire Course Entire Course Link: ashio-midori.com Week 1 Personality Reflection Worksheet.
Resource: Personality Reflection. PSY Abnormal Psychology research guide by Michele Howard is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution International ashio-midori.com resources may have different licenses.
Please check individual resources before reusing. OMETIMES, a person will experience psychological problems as the result of an underlying medical condition.. In some of these cases it doesn’t take much thought to realize what’s happening, as, for example, when a person who has had a heart attack becomes depressed.
Here is the best resource for homework help with PSY PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSONALITY at University Of Phoenix. Find PSY study guides, notes, and practice. Learn psy with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of psy flashcards on Quizlet.
1 A sole proprietor/sole proprietorship is an individual, and as such, is eligible for a single NPI number. The sole proprietor must apply for the NPI number using his or her own Social Security Number (SSN), not an Employer Identification Number (EIN) even if he/she has an EIN.