Temporal lobe epilepsy a literature review

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Temporal lobe epilepsy a literature review

Temporal lobe epilepsy Save Temporal lobe epilepsy TLE is a chronic disorder of the nervous system characterized by recurrent, unprovoked focal seizures that originate in the temporal lobe of the brain and last about one or two minutes.

TLE is the most common form of epilepsy with focal seizures. TLE is usually diagnosed in childhood or adolescence. TLE is diagnosed by taking a medical historyblood testsand brain imaging.

It can have a number of causes such as head injury, stroke, brain infections, structural lesions in the brain, or brain tumors, or it can be of unknown onset.

The first line of treatment is through anticonvulsants. Surgery may be an option, especially when there is an observable abnormality in the brain. Another treatment option is electrical stimulation of the brain through an implanted device called the vagus nerve stimulator VNS.

Inthe ILAE recognized three types of seizures occurring in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Temporal lobe epilepsy a literature review

The classification was based on EEG findings. The newer classification gives two types of focal onset seizures, as focal aware and focal impaired awareness.

Temporal lobe epilepsy a literature review

Visual distortions such as macropsia and micropsia Dissociation or derealisation Synesthesia stimulation of one sense experienced in a second sense may transpire.

Often, the patient cannot describe the sensations. Regardless an aura is actually a seizure itself, and such a focal seizure may or may not progress to a focal impaired awareness seizure. Focal impaired awareness seizures Focal impaired awareness seizures are seizures which impair consciousness to some extent: They usually begin with a focal aware seizure, then spread to a larger portion of the temporal lobe, resulting in impaired consciousness.

They may include autonomic and psychic features present in focal aware seizures. It is not uncommon for an individual to be tired or confused for up to 15 minutes after a seizure has occurred, although postictal confusion can last for hours or even days.

Though they may not seem harmful, due to the fact that the individual does not normally seize, they can be extremely harmful if the individual is left alone around dangerous objects. For example, if a person with complex partial seizures is driving alone, this can cause them to run into the ditch, or worse, cause an accident involving multiple people.

With this type, some people do not even realize they are having a seizure and most of the time their memory from right before or after the seizure is wiped.

First-aid is only required if there has been an injury or if this is the first time a person has had a seizure. Focal to bilateral seizures Seizures which begin in the temporal lobe, and then spread to involve both sides of the brain are termed focal to bilateral.

Where both sides of the brain or the whole brain are involved from the onset the seizures are known as generalized seizures and may be tonic clonic. These were previously known as grand mal seizures.

Postictal period There is some period of recovery in which neurological function is altered after each of these seizure types. This is the postictal state.

The degree and length of postictal impairment directly correlates with the severity of the seizure type. Focal aware seizures often last less than sixty seconds; focal with impaired awareness seizures may last up to two minutes; and generalized tonic clonic seizures may last up to three minutes.

The postictal state in seizures other than focal aware may last much longer than the seizure itself. Because a major function of the temporal lobe is short-term memory, a focal with impaired awareness seizure, and a focal to bilateral seizure can cause amnesia for the period of the seizure, meaning that the seizure may not be remembered.

Complications and prognosis Depression Individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy have a higher prevalence of depression than the general population. Although the psychosocial impacts of epilepsy may be causative, there are also links in the phenomenology and neurobiology of TLE and depression.

Declarative memory memories which can be consciously recalled is formed in the area of the hippocampus called the dentate gyrus. Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with memory disorders and loss of memory. Animal models and clinical studies show that memory loss correlates with temporal lobe neuronal loss in temporal lobe epilepsy.Epilepsy surgery is well established as safe and successful for children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).

Despite evidence from available data, there remains some reluctance to refer children with medically refractory epilepsy for preoperative evaluation and workup for possible surgery. Scalp EEG Findings in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy EEG Course, CNSF, Ottawa, ON •Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, a brief review Rosati A, et al.

Intractable temporal lobe epilepsy with rare spikes is less severe than with frequent spikes. Neurology ; Objectives To review the evidence for the use of neuroimaging studies in the selection of patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy for focal cortical resection and discuss the prognostic importance of selected techniques.

Mar 26,  · Most Antidepressant Drugs Are Safe for Patients with Epilepsy at Therapeutic Doses: A Review of the Evidence Top 10 Ketogenic Diet Articles in the Medical Literature of I've heard stories where people don't realize they have Temporal Lobe Epilepsy until they're in their forties or fifties.

I'm only twenty three and I can begin. Objectives: To describe the clinical course, image findings and literature review of choroidal fissure cysts. summary and background data: there are few reported cases of choroidal fissure cysts.

Results: We report two patients with complex partial seizures and temporal choroidal fissure cysts. We review the human literature examining the effects of neurological insult on human sexual behaviour.

We provide a synthesis of the findings to date, and identify key brain regions associated with specific aspects of human sexual behaviour. These include subcortical and cortical regions, with the mesial temporal lobe and the amygdala in particular being a crucial structure in the mediation of.

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