The causes and prevention of zoonotic diseases

ShareCompartir Zoonotic Diseases also known as zoonoses are caused by infections that are shared between animals and people. Every year, tens of thousands of Americans will get sick from diseases spread between animals and people. These are known as zoonotic diseases.

The causes and prevention of zoonotic diseases

History[ edit ] During most of human prehistory groups of hunter-gatherers were probably very small. Such groups probably made contact with other such bands only rarely. Such isolation would have caused epidemic diseases to be restricted to any given local population, because propagation and expansion of epidemics depend on frequent contact with other individuals who have not yet developed an adequate immune response.

To persist in such a population, a pathogen either had to be a chronic infection, staying present and potentially infectious in the infected host for long periods, or it had to have other additional species as reservoir where it can maintain itself until further susceptible hosts are contacted and infected.

In fact, for many 'human' diseases, the human is actually better viewed as an accidental or incidental victim and a dead-end host. Examples include rabiesanthraxtularemia and West Nile virus. Thus, much of human exposure to infectious disease has been zoonotic.

Many modern diseases, even epidemic diseases, started out as zoonotic diseases. It is hard to establish with certainty which diseases jumped from other animals to humans, but there is increasing evidence from DNA and RNA sequencingthat measlessmallpoxinfluenzaHIVand diphtheria came to humans this way.

Various forms of the common cold and tuberculosis also are adaptations of strains originating in other species. Zoonoses are of interest because they are often previously unrecognized diseases or have increased virulence in populations lacking immunity. The West Nile virus appeared in the United States in in the New York City area, and moved through the country in the summer ofcausing much distress.

Zoonotic Diseases | One Health | CDC

Bubonic plague is a zoonotic disease, [26] as are salmonellosisRocky Mountain spotted feverand Lyme disease. A major factor contributing to the appearance of new zoonotic pathogens in human populations is increased contact between humans and wildlife. An example of this is the outbreak of Nipah virus in peninsular Malaysia inwhen intensive pig farming began on the habitat of infected fruit bats.

Unidentified infection of the pigs amplified the force of infection, eventually transmitting the virus to farmers and causing human deaths.

Highly mobile animals such as bats and birds may present a greater risk of zoonotic transmission than other animals due to the ease with which they can move into areas of human habitation. Because they depend on the human host for part of their life-cycle, diseases such as African schistosomiasisriver blindnessand elephantiasis are not defined as zoonotic, even though they may depend on transmission by insects or other vectors.

Use in vaccines[ edit ] The first vaccine against smallpox by Edward Jenner in was by infection of a zoonotic bovine virus which caused a disease called cowpox.

Common Zoonotic Diseases

Jenner had noticed that milkmaids were resistant to smallpox. Milkmaids contracted a milder version of the disease from infected cows that conferred cross immunity to the human disease.

Jenner abstracted an infectious preparation of 'cowpox' and subsequently used it to inoculate persons against smallpox. As a result, smallpox has been eradicated globally, and mass vaccination against this disease ceased in Zoonotic diseases can be bacterial, parasitic or viral.

These diseases can enter a person's body through a number of ways including broken skin, eyes, mouth and lungs.

The causes and prevention of zoonotic diseases

Even animal bites can result in transfer of zoonotic diseases such as rabies. Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be naturally transmitted between animals (usually vertebrates) and humans.. Major modern diseases such as Ebola virus disease and salmonellosis are zoonoses.

HIV was a zoonotic disease transmitted to humans in the early part of the 20th century, though it has now mutated to a separate human-only disease. Most strains of influenza that infect humans are.

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Zoonotic Diseases information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis. Maine Center for Disease Control & Prevention.

A Division of the Maine Department of Health and Human Services. Contact EPI | News | Zoonotic Diseases.

In humans it causes a wide range of symptoms, and is confirmed by laboratory testing of a blood or urine sample. These germs can be spread through direct contact i.e.

The causes and prevention of zoonotic diseases

petting them or farming them or through indirect contact through food, and water, the major causes of zoonotic diseases are: Food and water contamination: Contaminated food and water supply is one of the major causes of zoonotic diseases.

Zoonoses are diseases that are transmissable between animals and people. Caring for the health of animals is the first important step in preventing zoonoses.

Practising good personal hygiene, wearing protective clothing and undertaking vaccination where appropriate, can minimise the risk of some animal-borne diseases affecting people.

Zoonosis - Wikipedia